## Winter/Spring Term 2010 Math Curriculum

XO Mathematics Curriculum

The revised XO Mathematics curriculum for January – March 2010 is ready.  Week 1 starts on the 11th of January 2010 and the program will run continuously until the end of Week 12, on the 2nd of April 2010. The aim of this curriculum is to improve performance of Mathematics, and these are the areas we aim to improve by the end of the three month period.

After schools and during the weekend the XOs will be available to students either in the school or at a commonly accessible location in the village.

Week 1:  Review of  XO features and specifically the features of Turtle Math and Pippy activities

Week 2:  Present Problem Solving tasks to visualize addition, subtraction, multiplication and division by using Turtle Art to create basic geometric objects.  Introduction of algebraic concepts (addition and subtraction of one or more unknowns, multiplication and division of one or more unknowns, calculation of values of unknowns, substitution of unknowns into equations.

Week 3: Using Turtle Art and Pippy explore measurement systems, solve problems of length and distance, introduce Kinematics by making Turtle objects move; in addition use outdoor activities to experience the concepts taught in measurement.

Week 4:   CATS

Week 5: Reading Time (analogue and digital); Time conversion; Time measurement of human movement; efficiency and speed measured in outdoor activities.  Use the XO chart tool and “Measure” to illustrate these concepts.  XO to create programs to create a number  conversion chart.

Week 6:  Using Scratch or Turtle Art to learn about angles. Create Scratch or Turtle program to draw  a polygon of any number of sides. This would involve creating angles, recursion, successive approximations and the use of variables  Apply what was learning in Turtle Geometry to conventional geometry calculating angles between lines; bisection of angles ; the triangle: properties, explanation of the Pythagoras theorem; Outdoor activities will reinforce practical use of angles: marking the sports field.

Week 7:  Use a chart to track measurement of mass; identification of common metric, show mass to density and volume; density of solids and liquids.

 Class 4 Class 5 Class 6 Class 7 Class 8 Week 1 Introduction to XO Introduction to XO Introduction to XO Introduction to XO Introduction to XO Week 2 Operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) Operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division) Introduction to algebra. Addition and subtraction of one or more unknowns Algebra 2: multiplication and division of one or more unknowns Algebra 3: calculation of values of unknowns, substitution of unknowns into equations. Week 3 Introduction to Length (identifying kilometres, metres, cm, mm) Length: measurement of lengths and distances Length and Speed: measuring time and distance, using them to calculate speed Introduction to and application of Kinematics Outdoor activity: measurement of distances within the school compound. Week 4 CAT 1 CAT 1 CAT 1 CAT 1 CAT 1 Week 5 Reading Time using both the analogue and digital clock and relating between the two Understanding the concept behind converting time from 12 hour to 24 hour formats Relating time in hours and minutes to the clock, e.g. scheduled journeys of travellers and vehicles Practical use of time: measurement of performance on the athletics field and track. Practical use of time: measurement of efficiency and team speed Week 6 Introduction to Angles (identifying angles, naming them) Angles: calculating angles between lines Bisection of angles using common mathematical instruments The triangle: properties, explanation of the Pythagoras theorem Practical use of angles: marking the sports field and in construction Week 7 Introduction to Mass: identification of common metric units of mass Conversion of metric units to Relation of mass to density and volume. Practical work: measurement of density of solid materials Practical work: measurement of density of liquids Week 8 CAT 2 CAT 2 CAT 2 CAT 2 CAT 2 Week 9 Introduction to Money and Currency: shilling and cents, adding and subtracting Introduction to Foreign Exchange (FOREX) Profits and Loss; calculation of, and application to business situations Calculation of Discounts and Commission and their applications Calculation of Simple and Compound Interest, Hire Purchase Week 10 Introduction to Area: calculation of area of a rectangle and square Area of a triangle and a circle, introduction of π Area of a rhombus, trapezium and parallelogram Calculation of surface areas of three dimensional shapes: cubes, cuboids and cylinders Practical use of area to calculate areas of land and other spaces, conversion of measurements to Ha; Area of irregular shapes Week 11 Introduction to volume Calculating volume of cylinders (tanks) Calculation of volume of cuboids and cubes Outdoor activities; calculation of volumes of objects in and around the schools Outdoor activities; calculation of volumes of objects in and around the schools Week 12 Term CAT Term CAT Term CAT Term CAT Term CAT

 This will help children visualize length and by extension distance practically

 This is a small Continuous Assessment Test (CAT) we give to the children to examine how much they have learned in every three week period

 Children will participate in XO team games outdoors that will be timed. This aims at sharpening their team work abilities and its importance in saving time.

 Children will take pictures of items whose mass and density they have measured and calculated and keep them in their XOs identification, like a journal

WEEK 1 – Introduction to XO’s and OLPC
– XO’s, contract, getting started with the XO
– Open Turtle Art
– Copy code for how to write HELLO, explaining all the green commands

WEEK 2 – Introduction to Turtle Art cont.
– Challenge 1 – draw your name(20 min max)
– Copy code for one drawing, introduce pen colors and line thickness
– Challenge 2 – convert a drawing into a Turtle Art program. Could have a
computer “deck of cards” and students can race in pairs when they finish
first activity.
– Extra – make your own drawing in Turtle Art

WEEK 3 – patterns
– Copy code for FLOSS manual four circles pattern
– Challenge 1 – more circularly symmetric patterns
– Copy code for a triangle and square
– Challenge 2 – make regular polygons

WEEK 4 – more patterns: tessellations

– Copy code for square tessellation
– Challenge 1 – triangle tessellation, hexagon tessellation
– Copy code for fish tessellation
– Challenge 2 – make your own funky tessellation

WEEK 4 – equations and variables
– Copy code for the visual representation of addition (e.g. 3+4 =7
represented by colored lines on the screen)
– Challenge 1 – represent a different addition equation, eg. 2+3+5 = 4+6
– Challenge 2 – represent a subtraction equation
– Extra – can you think of a way to represent multiplication visually?
– Copy code changing the 3+4=7 code to x + y = z code.
– Challenge 3 – Make all of your number equations into variable equations
– Copy code for a rectangular color spectrum
– Challenge 4 – try to reproduce some other color spectra from pictures
of the end result
– Extra – make your own pattern that changes color in each iteration

WEEK 5 – recursion
– Copy code for a spiral formed out of half circles
– Challenge 1 – make a golden spiral
– Copy code for the top hat fractal
– Challenge 2 – make Sierpinski’s triangle

WEEK 6 – interfacing with people
– Copy code that moves the turtle when you press the arrow keys
– Copy code that uses the Wait block to make things move slowly around
the board
– Demo turtleart pong, look at code
– With a partner, design a game that you can make in turtle art

WEEK 7 – more turtleart games
– Challenge 1 – with your partner, make the game you designed last week

—Labs after this are contingent on technical feasibility.—
If the robot is not ready, we will have the students continue in game
design, or introduce them to python with the “myfunction” and “myblock”
capabilities of Turtle Art

WEEK 8 – interfacing with motors and sensors

– Copy code that makes the XOBot move forward 1 foot
– Challenge 1 – make the XOBot move in a 1×2 ft rectangle
– Challenge 2 – make the XOBot move in a circle
– Copy code to make a Turtle Art oscilloscope
– Challenge 3 – find the signal amplitude
– Challenge 4 – make your turtle move when you clap

WEEK 9 – robot control

– Challenge 1 – make the robot move with a mouse click by combining week
7 and 8 code
– Challenge 2 – make the robot move when you clap
– Challenge 3 – make the robot move when you press a button

WEEK 10 – robot control continued
– finish labs from WEEK 9 and/or write your own robot code

These will be given by the school at the end of the three month Term to test general improvement at the end of the three month period 